In Karnataka, Arecanut is cultivated as a garden crop whereas, in Kerala, except in Kasargod and Cannanore Districts it is grown in almost all the tracts of land near to the paddy fields or near to the coconut gardens. But, recently due to dependable price of Arecanut, Scientific farming is done in Kerala, Karnataka and Assam States. Further large scale expansion of Arecanut farming is also taking place in non-traditional areas. Adequate and regular supply of plant nutrients are essential for proper growth and yield of Arecanut.
Arecanut palm thrives well in heavy rainfall area with well marked dry season. Because of the high rainfall, the soil gets severely leached and eroded as a result, the soil becomes very poor in plant nutrients. Thus for Arecanut Plantation, judicious application of fertilizer and organic manures is necessary as the tree cannot withstand water logging.
There are two varieties of Arecanut, called white Supari and Red Supari. White variety supari is prepared by harvesting fully riped Arecanut and by Sun drying for 40 to 50 days. After drying the nut, the shell of the nut has to be removed by hand/machine. The nut derived from this dried fruit is called Arecanut/Supari/Betelnut. Red variety Supari is prepared by harvesting the tender (green) Arecanut and peeling the husk. The nut derived by peeling the tender nut, are processed as per the variety required (i.e., wholenut, two pieces, 8pieces, etc), boiled in water and then Sun dried. The white variety i.e.,Chali variety of Areca is mainly grown in South Kanara, North Kanara of Karnataka State and northern parts of Kerala. The red variety of Arecanut is mainly cultivated in Shimoga, Chickmangalur, North Kanara, Chitradurga, Tumkur Districts of Karnataka. Trivandrum, Quilon, Alleppy, Kottayam, Ernakulam, Trichur, Waynad Districts of kerala. The Arecanut or Supari, what we call as Bazar stock, will have to be graded into several varieties to suit the consumer taste. The Bazar stock received is first garbled by hand picking and classified into different varieties like Mora, Moti, Vachras, Jamnagar, Jini, Lindi, etc.. Other varieties like fators are classified as an inferior quality used for cutting items. Each variety has got its own market and is consumed by people from different part of India and outside. The cutting items are called as Fadcha, Tukada, Choora, Choori, Dagi nuts is done to mechanical Classifiers.
In Kerala State also Red Supari is prepared by dehusking the tendernut, boiling, Coloring, drying as mentioned above. In some areas, the process is made with wholenuts and with sliced one in some other areas. The main varieties are called as Edi, Nayam, Iylon, Vellavichuru, Kalichuru, Iylon Veruvu, etc. In some parts of Tumkur District, a variety called Podi, Podi Bette, Churu, Churu Bette is prepared by cutting the tender nuts into 8 pieces and boiling , drying, etc.
The Arecanut/Supari/Betelnut so purchased in various Branches are brought to main centers. Here it is garbled/graded and processed as per the requirement of the consuming markets. CAMPCO has appointed Selling Representatives(S.R’s) for marketing its supari. These representatives canvass for CAMPCO supari, and place orders arrange the supply of supari to their customers and arrange the payments to CAMPCO. The goods are despatched through CAMPCO approved transporters by holding security deposits from both the transporters and S.R’s.
CAMPCO has opened Sales Depots at Bombay, Ahmedadad, Indore, Jaipur, Delhi, Nagpur, Patna, Calcutta, Cuttack, Bangalore, Rajkot, and Chennai and caters to the requirement of the local customers, in the respective States. The customers can also directly contact the Branches for supari and their requirement will be met without the middlemen. There are about 1000 varieties of supari marketed by Campco.
Arecanut also called as ‘supari’ is available in different varieties and Categorized by grades SS, S, JJ, J
CAMPCO has Sales Depots at Bombay, Ahmedadad, Indore, Jaipur, Delhi, Nagpur, Patna, Calcutta, Cuttack, Bangalore, Rajkot, and Chennai and caters to the requirement of the local customers.The customers can also directly contact the Branches for supari and other requirement will be met without the middlemen. There are about 1000 varieties in CAMPCO brand supari.
Source:Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome
Area: 702.89 Thousand ha
STATEWISE AREA AND PRODUCTION OF ARECANUT IN INDIA (AREA :’000 HECTARES,PRODUCTION :’000 TONNES (Area:’000ha,Production:’000 tonnes, Yield:kg/ha)
STATEWISE AREA AND PRODUCTION OF ARECANUT IN INDIA (AREA :’000 HECTARES,PRODUCTION :’000 TONNES (Area:’000ha,Production:’000 tonnes, Yield:kg/ha)
Arecanut (सुपारी) or betelnut (Areca catechu L.,) is an important cash crop in the Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, East and North Eastern regions of India. Areca plant is a tall-stemmed erect palm, reaching varied heights, depending upon the environmental conditions. Palms attaining a height of 30 meters are not uncommon which poses problems for harvesting of nuts. Arecanut is an important component of the religious, social and cultural celebrations and economic life of people in India. Arecanut is also used in ayurvedic and veterinary medicines. The habit of chewing arecanut is typical of the Indian subcontinent and its neighborhood. Although, production of arecanut is localized in a few states, the commercial product is widely distributed all over the country. There are mainly two types of processing of arecanut, viz., chali (ripe sun dried nuts) and red boiled type (tender or mature nuts). Chali is mainly produced in Dakshina Kannada and parts of Uttara Kannada districts. Chali is used in the preparation of scented supari and is greatly demanded in Northern India. Different types of red boiled nuts are prepared in other parts of the state to meet market demand. About 20 per cent of total areca production in the country is consumed as ripe fruit.
Arecanut is processed into pan-masala, gutka, scented supari etc., which are getting more popular in the country. There are over 150 trade types of arecanut, differing in maturity, processing conditions and taste characteristics as per market requirements at different trade centers of the country. The drying of unhusked ripe nuts for making chali supari requires up to 45 to 60 days of good sun-shine, so as to reduce moisture level to about 10 per cent. An important by-product of the arecanut industry is the husk of nuts which can be utilized for making particle boards, paper etc. ‘Chogaru’, a by-product obtained from the processing of tender nuts is rich in tannins, used in leather industry for converting hides into skins.
Production of arecanut in the world was about 10.33 lakh tones from an area of 8.29 lakh hectares in 2009-10. India ranks first in terms of both area (47%) and production (47%) of arecanut. The other countries which produce arecanut in the world are Bangladesh (21% in area and 9% in production), China (6% in area and 20% in production) and Indonesia (16% in area and 6% production). It is also cultivated in Myanmar and Thailand on a smaller scale. The world productivity of arecanut stood at 1.21 tonnes/ha. Indian productivity is also on par with the world productivity (1.27 tonnes/ha), (DGCI&S, Kolkata).
A sudden withdrawal by the buyers of cocoa from the procurement operations due to crash in the international market came as a shock to cultivators. Karnataka and Kerala Governments enthused, at this stage, the CAMPCO, to enter on the scene to rescue the farmers from distress. CAMPCO willingly took up the responsibility to enter the cocoa market and performed a savior’s role.
As a strategy for survival in the International scene, CAMPCO played a major role in establishing a name for Indian Cocoa, which hitherto had not been achieved. It procured cocoa pods from growers and adopting scientific processing methods to market standards, released dry cocoa beans matching in quality in the world market equal to that of Ghana,Brazil and other cocoa cultivating Nations.
After entering into the Cocoa market the Co-operative was able to export Cocoa Beans worth Rs. 40 million to European countries in the initial phase of operations. India was not known as a Cocoa producer in the international Trading Community, since yearly production was hardly 5 to 6 thousand tonnes which is not even 0.3% of the total world consumption.
Through sustained efforts CAMPCO has been able to ensure reasonable prices to Cocoa growers. The Co-operative had to face the problem of a limited internal market and un-remunerative export market.
With the setting up of the chocolate manufacturing factory at Puttur, 50KM from Mangalore, the Co-operative has been able to increase local consumption of cocoa based products and to export value added semi-finished products. With a view to create a permanent demand and a steady market for the beans, CAMPCO established a Chocolate Manufacturing Factory at Kemminje village in Puttur Taluk in Dakshina Kannada District, adopting foreign technical advancement in chocolate manufacturing. The Factory was set up in 1986 at an initial investment of Rs.116.7 Millions.
Varieties Of Cocoa Beans
Origins Of Cocoa And Its Spread Around The World
The genus Theobroma originated millions of years ago in South America, to the east of the Andes. Theobroma has been divided into twenty-two species of which T. cacao is the most widely known. It is the Mayans who have provided tangible evidence of cacao as a domesticated crop. Archaeological evidence in Costa Rica indicates that cacao was drunk by Mayan traders as early as 400 BC. The Aztec culture, dominant in Mesoamerica from the fourteenth century to the Conquest, placed much emphasis on the sanctity of cacao. The first outsider to drink chocolate was Christopher Columbus, who reached Nicaragua in 1502 searching for a sea route to the spices of the East. But it was Hernan Cortés, leader of an expedition in 1519 to the Aztec empire, who returned to Spain in 1528 bearing the Aztec recipe for xocoatl (chocolate drink) with him. The drink was initially received unenthusiastically and it was not until sugar was added to it became a popular drink in the Spanish courts.
Cocoa tree varieties
Criollos dominated the market until the middle of the eighteenth century but today only a few, if any, pure Criollo trees remain.
Forastero is a large group containing cultivated, semi-wild and wild populations of which the Amelonado populations are the most extensively planted. Large areas of Brazil and West Africa are planted with Amelonado.
Amelonado varieties include, Comum in Brazil, West African Amelonado in Africa, Cacao Nacional in Ecuador and Matina or Ceylan in Costa Rica and Mexico. Recently large plantations throughout the world use Upper Amazon hybrids.
The Trinitario populations are considered to belong to the Forasteros although they are descended from a cross between Criollo and Forastero. Trinitario planting started in Trinidad and spread to Venezuela and then was planted in Ecuador, Cameroon, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Java and Papua New Guinea.
Categories of Cocoa Beans
The world cocoa market distinguishes between two broad categories of cocoa beans: “fine or flavour” cocoa beans, and “bulk”or “ordinary” cocoa beans. As a generalisation, fine or flavour cocoa beans are produced from Criollo or Trinitario cocoa-tree varieties, while bulk cocoa beans come from Forastero trees. There are, however, known exceptions to this generalisation. Nacional trees in Ecuador, considered to be Forastero-type trees, produce fine or flavour cocoa. On the other hand, Cameroon cocoa beans, produced by Trinitario-type trees and whose cocoa powder has a distinct and sought-after red colour, are classified as bulk-cocoa beans.
The share of fine or flavour cocoa in the total world production of cocoa beans is just under 5% per annum. Virtually all major activity over the past five decades has involved bulk cocoa.
Harvesting & Post-harvest
Forastero-type cocoa beans are used for making CAMPCO CHOCOLATE and Harvesting of Cocoa involves removing ripe pods from the trees and opening them to extract the wet beans. The pods are harvested manually by making a clean cut through the stalk with a well sharpened blade. The pods are opened to remove the beans within a week to 10 days after harvesting. In general the harvested pods are grouped together and split either in or at the edge of the plantation. Sometimes the pods are transported to a fermentary before splitting. After extraction from the pod the beans undergo fermentation and drying process before being bagged for delivery.
Fermentation can be carried out in a variety of ways, but all methods depend on removing the beans from the pods and piling them together or in a box to allow micro-organisms to develop and initiate the fermentation of the pulp surrounding the beans. The piles are covered by banana leaves. The fermentation process decides the quality of raw cocoa. The fermentation process begins with the growth of micro-organisms. The chemical reactions that take place during fermentation cause the chocolate flavour and colour to develop. The length of fermentation varies depending on the bean type and origin. Forastero beans require about 5 days and Criollo beans 2-3 days.
Cocoa beans are dried after fermentation in order to reduce the moisture content from about 60% to about 7.5%. Drying must be carried out carefully to ensure that off-flavors are not developed. Drying should take place slowly. If the beans are dried too quickly some of the chemical reactions started in the fermentation process are not allowed to complete their work and the beans are acidic with a bitter flavour. However, if the drying is too slow moulds and off flavors can develop. Various research studies indicate that bean temperatures during drying should not exceed 650C. There are two methods for drying beans – sun drying and artificial drying.
Transforming Cocoa beans into Chocolate
Stage 1. The cocoa beans are cleaned to remove all extraneous material.
Stage 2. To bring out the chocolate flavour and colour the beans are roasted. The temperature, time and degree of moisture involved in roasting depend on the type of beans used and the sort of chocolate or product required from the process.
Stage 3. A winnowing machine is used to remove the shells from the beans to leave just the cocoa nibs.
Stage 4. The cocoa nibs undergo alkalization, usually with potassium carbonate, to develop the flavour and colour.
Stage 5. The nibs are then milled to create cocoa liquor (cocoa particles suspended in cocoa butter). The temperature and degree of milling varies according to the type of nib used and the product required.
Stage 6. Manufacturers generally use more than one type of bean in their products and therefore the different beans have to be blended together to the required formula.
Stage 7. The cocoa liquor is pressed to extract the cocoa butter leaving a solid mass called cocoa press cake. The amount of butter extracted from the liquor is controlled by the manufacturer to produce press cake with different proportions of fat.
Stage 8. The processing now takes two different directions. The cocoa butter is used in the manufacture of chocolate. The cocoa press cake is broken into small pieces to form kibbled press cake which is then pulverized to form cocoa powder.
Stage 9. Cocoa liquor is used to produce chocolate through the addition of cocoa butter. Other ingredients such as sugar, milk, emulsifying agents and cocoa butter equivalents are also added and mixed. The proportions of the different ingredients depend on the type of chocolate being made.
Stage10. The mixture then undergoes a refining process by traveling through a series of rollers until a smooth paste is formed. Refining improves the texture of the chocolate and reduces the particle size of sugar and cocoa to around 30 microns.
Stage 11. The next process, conching, further develops flavour and texture. Conching is a kneading or smoothing process. The speed, duration and temperature of the kneading affect the flavour.
Stage 12. The mixture is then tempered or passed through a heating, cooling and reheating process. This prevents discoloration and fat bloom in the product by preventing certain crystalline formations of cocoa butter developing.
Stage 13. The mixture is then put into moulds or used for enrobing fillings and cooled in a cooling chamber.
Stage 14. The chocolate is then packaged for distribution to retail outlets.
The Chocolate Manufacturing Unit is located at Kemminje Village near Puttur in Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India.
A youngster of 30 years old with vigour and valour, it had taken giant steps in its toddling stage itself to fulfill the growers aspirations. undisputedly, Campco can claim the credit of establishing the areca and cocoa market. The Campco was encouraging the growers to grow cocoa as an intercrop to arecanut as cocoa has an international market
The principle buyer of cocoa till 1980 suddenly stopped buying cocoa during the peak cocoa season due to slump in international cocoa price. To safeguard the interests of its growers Campco had to enter into Indian cocoa market also. Cocoa was bought in the form of wet beans from the farmers. The Campco has been furnishing the cocoa growers with cocoa saplings to the tune of 1,00,000 at free of cost to promote the cultivation of cocoa. Adopting scientific methods of fermentation and drying, campco could successfully export quality cocoa beans to european countries. Perceiving the future necessity of cocoa products and market strategy for cocoa, with the supporting nod from the central government and state governments of Karnataka and Kerala, Campco had carved a niche by establishing a biggest chocolate factory in South – East Asia, located in Puttur – a taluk headquarter located 50 km away from the coastal city Mangalore.
Nurtured by Sri Varanashi Subraya Bhat, the founder president, the factory with all imported machinery was completed in a record time of 4 years, with an additional financial assistance from a consortium of Industrial Development Bank of India [IDBI.], Industrial Credit Corporation of India [ICICI], and Industrial Finance Corporation of India [IFCI], The factory was commissioned by Sri Gaini Zail Singh, the then President of India on 1st September 1986. The Campco had a break through within 4 years with an enthuastic support from the chocolate consumers and traders. It netted a profit of Rs. 27.5 Lakh in the year 1990-91. Eminent presidents, Board of Directors, Managing Directors, Secretaries have navigated and have been navigating Campco’s cruiser cleverly and concernfully. It has steered its way during last 30 years in placid as well troubled waters with a pledge to make the farmer members reach their destinations safely and satisfactorily. This is made possible also with the unstinting support of diligent and devoted employees of the organisation.
Cocoa cultivation is of recent origin in India; being an inter crop it has a great potential for growth in the vast plantations of areca and coconut in southern states of Kerala, Karnataka, Tamilanadu and most recently in a few places of Andhra Pradesh. Campco, through its undeterent efforts over the years has been able to install a sense of confidence in the cocoa cultivators through its procurement policy that has ensured reasonable prices to them. In purport of this, Campco has decided to establish cocoa liquor, butter and powder processing facilities and a chocolate manufacturing plant as an extension of its activities for achieving its overall corporate objective of safeguarding the interests of cocoa growers with better economic returns.
With the machineries manufactured by 5 major companies of the cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing namely
• M/s. Carle & Montanari Spa, Italy,
• M/s. l – Aasted International APS, Denmark,
• M/s. Otto Hansel Gmbh, West Germany,
• M/s. Sollich Gmbh & Co. kg, West Germany,
• M/s. Sig Swiss Industrial co., Switzerland,
Campco has stepped into cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing with a licenced capacity of 8800 mt. though it is 8800mt, the installed capacity is around 13000 mt with a cocoa beans crushing capacity to the tune of 9000 mt.
The factory manufactures –
1. Cocoa Mass, Cocoa Butter and Cocoa Powder -Industrial Products for internal & export market.
2. Moulded chocolates, Enrobed chocolates, Chocolate Eclairs, Sugar Coated Chocolate buttons and instantised drinking chocolate – finished products for internal market & having export potential.
Keeping pace with the consumer needs of the new products, Campco has recently exported instantised milk flavouring beverage products and Chocolate Eclairs to Australia That are formulated at product development cell of chocolate factory export of cocoa butter to European countries also takes the cue.
Salient features of the chocolate factory :
•The factory is the largest in south east asia.
•The factory is one of the most modern in the world. the factory is equipped with the most modern machineries imported from five firms of four european countries.
•The factory is equipped with services installed by the best firms of india.
•The well-experienced architects and consultants designed the factory.
•The factory has been completed in a record time. the factory is situated in an industrially backward rural area in the midst of cocoa cultivation area.
•The Campco ltd. earns foreign exchange.
•Being a co-operative venture, this factory provides an opportunity to further strengthen the co-operative movement by bringing in the dispersed marginal and small cocoa growers under one umbrella.
•Quality of product manufactured is of international standard.
The industrial development of the country over the past three decades has led to socio economic betterment of the country indicated by two parameters, the income changing pattern as well as growth of new urban agglomerates. The global liberalisation, the green and white revolutions has resulted in the income generation that has uplifted living standards of the ruralites. This venture is the symbol of a new era of enterprise and business for the cocoa grower who once faced the prospect of destruction and defeat. Inferring from changing consumption and income pattern, campco has been endeavouring to bring cocoa, which was christened in 18th century by linnaeus as “theobroma – food of the gods”, within the reach of the common man. Campco produces wide range of cocoa based products of consistant quality, colour and flavour to satisfy the wide spectrum of customers all arround the globe. these include cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa powder, cocoa butter and other value added cocoa based products. the philosophy of the co-operative as reflected by our commitment to quality is simple:
FOOD SAFETY POLICY
CAMPCO Ltd is committed to,
1. Implementing a Food Safety Management System with an aim to produce and supply safe quality Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionery Products that meet customers’ satisfaction and expectations.
2. Comply with legal obligations and to protect the end users with consistent safe products through the application of good manufacturing, hygiene practices, good distribution practices and HACCP principles.
3. Ensure all employees involved in production receive appropriate and adequate training in food safety and handling.
4. Ensuring that both internal and external communications regarding food safety are fully addressed.
5. Meeting all the Food Safety Management objectives and continually improve on processes and resources.
1. Campco quality assurance department ensures the Production and Marketing of high quality, superior value products that consistently meet our specifications and comply with local regulatory requirements.
2. Campco assures the customers and consumers by considering their expectations towards quality and price factors and to supply the materials accordingly at the point of consumption and to continuously improve by considering the customers feedback.
3. Campco Chocolate Factory quality assurance department is committed towards supplying high quality chocolate products by applying HACCP, Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Sanitary Principles in the process and thereby assuring the safe quality food.
4. HACCP ensures the safety of the products as per Codex Alementarius standards while GMP ensures the implementation of the Good manufacturing practices and both in turn are ensured by Quality Assurance Department.
5. CCF Quality Assurance also covers the periodical verification and calibration of the equipments used for process control and hence ensures the correct proportions of the ingredients.
6. Inspection of the raw materials for stipulated specifications and final products for its physical, chemical and microbiological parameters to ensure the full safe quality food to the consumers and customers.
7. Final inspection of the products as per set norms along with products sensory evaluation by the well trained and screened tasters to ensure the consistency of the products.
8. Continual improvement with respect to technology and process for the delivery of safe quality assurance to Customers/Consumers.
9. Review and update this policy ensuring it continues to reflect Campco’s products value in concurrence to the expectations of consumers.
As most of our grower members also grow Rubber, CAMPCO has decided to enter Rubber procurement in the year 2010-11. We have started the Procurement at our Bandadka, Uppinangady, Mulleria, Alankar, Kadaba & Ninthikal Branches and in the process of expansion of Rubber Procurement in a phased manner spreading to other Branches also.